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Key People:Richard StallmanKenneth Lane ThompsonDennis M. Ritchie...(Show more)Related Topics:computer programming languageprocedural language...(Show more)

C, computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by American computer scientist Dennis M. Ritchie at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T Bell Laboratories). C was designed as a minimalist language lớn be used in writing operating systems for minicomputers, such as the DEC PDP. 7, which had very limited memories compared with the mainframe computers of the period. The language was devised during 1969–73, alongside the early development of the UNIX operating system. It was based on CPL (Combined Programming Language), which had been first condensed into lớn the B programming language—a stripped-down computer programming language—created in 1969–70 by Ken Thompson, an American computer scientist & a colleague of Ritchie. Ritchie subsequently rewrote & restored features from CPL to create C & eventually rewrote the UNIX operating system in the new language.

As the UNIX system was enhanced, a series of changes took place in C between 1977 and 1979. During this time a description of the language became widely available through a book, The C Programming Language (1978), by Brian W. Kernighan and Ritchie. In the mid-1980s it became important khổng lồ establish an official standard for C, since it was being used in projects subject khổng lồ commercial and government contracts. In 1983 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) set up a committee that further amended và standardized the language. Since then C has been referred to as ANSI Standard C, & it remains popular in the world of UNIX-like operating systems. C also became one of the most common programming languages used for writing other system software and applications. Descendants of C include Concurrent C, Objective C, C*, C#, and the widely used C++. The programming language Java was introduced in 1994 as a simplified subset of C for deployment over the Internet và for use in portable devices with limited memory or limited processing capabilities.


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The Editors of Encyclopaedia tudaimynhan.vnThis article was most recently revised và updated by Erik Gregersen.